Indus Valley Civilization (IVC)

Indus Valley Civilization (IVC):
  1. Location and Major Sites:

    • The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization that thrived in what is now Pakistan and northwestern India.
    • Major sites of the civilization include Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, Lothal, and Kalibangan.
  2. Urban Planning:

    • Cities of the civilization were known for their advanced urban planning.
    • Streets and houses were well-organized, with a grid-like layout.
    • Cities had public baths, granaries, and a centralized drainage system.
  3. Trade:

    • The IVC was engaged in trade with other civilizations, including Mesopotamia.
    • They had access to raw materials like metals, which were essential for trade.
  4. Language:

    • The language of the IVC remains undeciphered, and its script has not been fully understood.
  5. Social Structure:

    • The society had a hierarchical structure with varnas (classes), including Brahmins (priests), Kshatriyas (warriors), Vaishyas (merchants), and Shudras (laborers).
    • Evidence suggests the presence of rich and poor classes in society.
  6. Religious Practices:

    • Religious practices of the IVC are not well-documented, but some artifacts suggest the worship of deities and symbols.
  7. Written Records:

    • The civilization had a script, but its meaning and content remain a subject of debate among scholars.
  8. Mysterious Decline:

    • The reasons for the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization are still a mystery, but factors like environmental changes and economic decline are considered possibilities.

These are important points to know about the Indus Valley Civilization when studying ancient history for exams like UPSC. Understanding this civilization’s significance and characteristics is essential for a comprehensive grasp of ancient Indian history.

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